Any surgery has a risk, but the existence of chronic diseases makes this risk increase a lot.
People suffering from diabetes, high blood pressure, lung disease, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, emphysema, malnutrition, severe depression, obesity and smokers are not ideal candidates for cosmetic surgery.
Excessive alcohol consumption such as smoking will turn into people who can no longer be said to be the ideal candidates for a cosmetic intervention.
If you are a smoker, you must give up two weeks before the operation and at least two weeks postoperatively, in order to obtain the best and uncomplicated cure.
You should know that smokers have an increased rate of infections, wound dehiscence, skin necrosis and anesthetic complications. There are clinical studies that show that smoking patients can develop skin necrosis 15 times more often than non-smokers.
And yet who is the ideal candidate?
Those who are not smokers, those who are emotionally stable, those who lead a healthy life.
Your expectations must be realistic, no surgeon in the world will be able to change your life, you must be able to accept the disadvantages of these interventions (postoperative discomfort and the risks of the intervention, the price).
It is important to know:
– your medication, including whether you are taking aspirin or vitamins
– hormones (contraceptives or estrogen substitutes)
– natural medication
all these products can interfere with coagulation or other drugs which can cause an increase in surgical risk.
Before you sit down on the operating table you must have the answer to a few questions:
– your expectations are realistic
– how you will manage an unexpected result
– you are fully informed of risks and complications
– you have time to recover
– the price of the operation will create a extra stress
– hide your plan from friends and family – can create extra stress
– ask for intervention for yourself or at the suggestion of someone else
Risks and complications
The rate of complications in plastic surgery is very low, but like any intervention, it involves risks, so it is good to be well informed.
Anesthetic complications, some patients have a hyperreactivity during anesthesia and sedation, the most common anesthetic complications are:
– cardiac arrhythmia
– airway obstruction
– embolism, brain damage, death
– myocardial infarction
Obstruction of the airways during anesthesia can occur by their irritation causing a laryngeal spasm with airway blockage.
Brain damage is caused by a lack of oxygenation in the brain.
Malignant hyperthermia is a rare complication in which temperature, blood pressure and heart rate are elevated. Unrecognized and treated in time can cause death.
Temporary paralysis occurs if the administered muscle relaxants have not been eliminated postoperatively, it is easy to detect and treat.
Patients with heart , respiratory or obese conditions have an increased risk of complications during anesthesia so to reduce the risk tell your doctor about any previous medication or condition.
Blood loss ; Bleeding exists in any surgery if it is excessive it can cause major complications. If it occurs intraoperatively the surgeon can solve this problem, postoperatively its appearance can cause the accumulation of blood under the skin with the production of a hematoma, requiring surgery.
Venous thrombosisdeep represents the thrombosis of a vein, can be fatal, occurs in the case of long-term and large-scale operations, can occur due to prolonged immobilization or due to pre-existing conditions.
It’s hard to predict.
Avoid prolonged immobilization, move your legs, use compression stockings.
Hypotension is a marked decrease in blood pressure that can cause cardiac arrhythmias or myocardial infarction.
Infections , their incidence is very low below 1% under antibiotic therapy, their occurrence is extremely serious. Patients who have vascular disease, are being treated with steroids or are smokers have an increased risk of infection.
Suture dehiscencedetermines the possibility of bleeding and requires reintervention.
General risks for cosmetic surgery
Necrosis follows an infection, hematoma and occurs more frequently in smokers. It requires excision of the necrotic area, which determines an inappropriate cosmetic result.
Severe and moderate asymmetries require surgical retouching, minimal ones are inevitable. Difficult healing depends on age, skin type, non-compliance with the doctor’s instructions.
Hypoaesthesia, paresthesias are often temporary and sometimes permanent with loss of sensitivity, due to damage to a nerve thread.
Serum can appear after breast augmentation, liposuction and tummy tuck and consists of fluid accumulation under the skin, requires drainage and evacuation of serum.
Women are at increased risk if they use oral contraceptives or have recently stopped taking them.
Studies by the American Society of Plastic Surgery show that the rate of complications from cosmetic surgery is very low below 1%.
The mortality rate is 1/57,000 interventions, which is a very small percentage. Postoperative risks and incidents are the same in both private and university clinics.